Although EU Member States share a tradition of regulating public broadcasting for the public interest, such regulation has been in decline in recent years. It has been challenged by the emergence of commercial television sworn to the market logic, as well as by satellite services and the Internet. EU law and policy has, under pressure from powerful global forces, abetted that decline. The question thus arises: Do cultural values still matter in European national broadcasting? This important book examines the challenges posed to public service obligations by European Union media law and policy. An in-depth analysis of the extent to which six countries (France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) regulate broadcasting for the public interest reveals a range of vulnerability to national political pressures or, alternatively, to the ideology of market sovereignty. The author examines the country of origin principle and the European quota rule of the Television without Frontiers Directive, revealing the influence of European law on the definition and enforcement of programme requirements, and shows how the case law of the European Court of Justice encourages deregulation at the national level without offering adequate safeguards at the supranational level in exchange. She asks the question whether the alleged 'European audiovisual model' actually persists-that is, whether broadcasting is still committed to protecting such values as cultural diversity, the safety of minors, the susceptibility of consumers to advertising, media pluralism, and the fight against racial and religious hatred. The book concludes with an evaluation of the impact of the EU state aid regime on the licence fee based financing of public broadcasting. Despite the increasing importance of the subject, its study in a comparative context has been heretofore underdeveloped. This book fully provides that context and more, and will be of great value and interest to all parties concerned with the key role of communications in the development of European integration.
Unfair competition law is concerned with fair play in commerce. It is generally regarded as necessary together with antitrust law in order to steer competition along an orderly course, and thereby to contribute to promoting an efficient market system that serves the interests of all participants. Nevertheless the significance of unfair competition law varies from one country to another. Whereas in some countries, such as Germany, it is seen as one of the most effective commercial laws, in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, it leads rather a shadowy existence. From the outset, this discrepancy laid in the differences in national legal s- tems. Whilst those continental European countries that possessed a written civil law when instances of unfair competition emerged, more or less successfully attempted to incorporate them in the existing tort law system, protection in the common law countries was restricted to some narrowly defined torts, in particular passing off . At this stage one of the few shared convictions was, that the protection of honest entrepreneurs was at issue; on this basis, in 1900, the only regulation at the int- bis national level until now was enacted, Art. 10 of the Paris Convention."
The comprehensive guide to all the essential legal and business considerations in structuring domestic and international strategic business alliances. Readers are provided with a clear and concise introduction to the various domestic and international laws and regulations that impact strategic business relationships, including intellectual property law, antitrust law, commercial law, tax law, agency and distribution laws, and foreign investment laws. An indispensable resource for consummating sales representation arrangements, licensing arrangements, research and development arrangements, manufacturing and distribution arrangements, joint ventures, equity investment, and negotiated acquisitions. The book is intended for entrepreneurs, executives, and professionals.
Entrepreneurs, executives, lawyers, accounts, and others involved in structuring cooperative business arrangements will benefit from the step-by-step approach to each strategic business relationship. The book provides guidance on each of the crucial steps in the negotiation process, including the selection of the prospective strategic business partner, the protection of trade secrets and confidential information, the due diligence process, representations and warranties, and dispute resolutions. Readers will gain an understanding of the essential bodies of law that might affect a relationship, such as intellectual property law, antitrust and competition law, laws relating to the sale of goods, agency and distribution laws, tax laws, export controls and antiboycott laws, and foreign inbound investment and technology transfer laws. The book covers each basic strategic business relationship that a firm might enter into to facilitate the development, manufacture, and distribution of products and services, including long-term functional contracts and joint ventures, minority investments, and negotiated acquisitions.
How-to guidance for measuring lost profits due to business interruption damages
A Quantitative Approach to Commercial Damages explains the complicated process of measuring business interruption damages, whether they are losses are from natural or man-made disasters, or whether the performance of one company adversely affects the performance of another. Using a methodology built around case studies integrated with solution tools, this book is presented step by step from the analysis damages perspective to aid in preparing a damage claim. Over 250 screen shots are included and key cell formulas that show how to construct a formula and lay it out on the spreadsheet.
Often in the course of business, a firm will be damaged by the actions of another individual or company, such as a fire that shuts down a restaurant for two months. Often, this results in the filing of a business interruption claim. Discover how to measure business losses with the proven guidance found in A Quantitative Approach to Commercial Damages.
This book represents a first attempt to investigate the relations between Law and Agroecology.
There is a need to adopt a transdisciplinary approach to multifunctional agriculture in order to integrate the agroecological paradigm in legal regulation. This does not require a super-law that hierarchically purports to incorporate and supplant the existing legal fields; rather, it calls for the creation of a trans-law that progressively works to coordinate interlegalities between different legal fields, respecting their autonomy but emphasizing their common historical roots in rus in the process.
Rus, the rural phenomenon as a whole, reflects the plurality and interdependence of different complex systems based jointly on the land as a central point of reference. "Rural" is more than "agricultural": if agriculture is understood traditionally as an activity aimed at exploiting the land for the production of material goods for use, consumption and private exchange, rurality marks the reintegration of agriculture into a broader sphere, one that is not only economic, but also social and cultural; not only material, but also ideal, relational, historical, and symbolic; and not only private, but also public.
In approaching rus, the natural and social sciences first became specialized, multiplied, and compartmentalized in a plurality of first-order disciplines; later, they began a process of integration into Agroecology as a second-order, multi-perspective and shared research platform. Today, Agroecology is a transdiscipline that integrates other fields of knowledge into the concept of agroecosystems viewed as socio-ecological systems.
However, the law seems to still be stuck in the first stage. Following a reductionist approach, law has deconstructed and shattered the universe of rus into countless, disjointed legal elementary particles, multiplying the planes of analysis and, in particular, keeping Agricultural Law and Environmental Law two separate fields.
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